Computer Tutorials | Infotech | Software | Games | Ebook | Tips & Trick Blogger

Processor Speed Versus Memory

The CPU is the brain of the computer. It's job is to take information from the various input devices, the operating system, and software and execute the instructions that it has been given. A CPU executes a certain amount of instructions within a grouping called a cycle. The speed of the CPU is measured in how many cycles it can perform in a given second. A speed of one cycle per second is called a hertz. Therefore a CPU that has a frequency of 1 million cycles per second has the speed of a Megahertz, and a CPU that has a frequency of 1 billion cycles per second is a Gigahertz. This is illustrated in the table below:

Hertz Term Cycles Per Second
1 Hertz 1
1 Megahertz 1,000,000
800 Megagertz                          800,000,000
1 Gigahertz  1,000,000,000                         

Therefore to have a very high CPU Speed is a good thing, because more instructions per second get executed. On the other hand, with current speeds where they are, most computers coming default with at least 2 Ghz, you will start to see a diminishing return on the visible speed differences between one processor and the next speed. Computers of at 2Ghz should be more than fine these days for most applications and you will probably not see much of a difference by increasing the speed of your processor when using standard applications. Games on the other hand can be more CPU intensive, and if you are going to be using your computer predominantly as a gaming machine, then it could not hurt to spend a few extra dollars on the CPU. You must remember though, to save some money for your memory, as that is just as important to having a fast machine.

Computer Memory

Just as important to the speed of the CPU is the amount of memory you have in your computer. Memory is the temporary storage place for your computers information. When a computer is manipulating some sort of information it is placed in the memory to be retrieves or manipulated later. If all your usable memory gets filled up, the computer will then start storing temporary data on to your hard drive in something called a swap file. When the CPU is ready to use that information it will then read it back from your hard drive and place it into memory where it can be used.

As you can see when you use a swap file, and the CPU needs to access the data it becomes a two-step process in retrieving that data from the hard drive and then stored in the memory, instead of a one step process of reading the data directly from memory. Even more important is that reading data from memory is many many times faster than reading that same data off the hard drive. With this in mind, you can see how it is important to have as much memory as you can, so that the swap file on your hard drive is never used, and all data is stored and read directly from your memory.


With all this information we are still left with the burning question of "Which is more important, Memory or CPU Speed" and the answer is neither and both. Got you there didn't I? The real answer depends on how much you have to spend on your new computer and what the base system is. If the base system is at least 2 Ghz then I would apply the money towards memory, otherwise I would increase it to over 2 Ghz. If you have money left over I would spend your up to your budget to increase your memory to 1 GB or as close as you can get. These days, you really should have at least 512MB of memory.

Download Microsoft Office Enterprise 2010 Corporate

This is the leaked Microsoft Office 2010 Enterprise Corporate Edition. This version also doesn't need an activation. The installer is very simple, undetailed and handy. The interface of application is completely changed, it is modernized and practically reminds in no way to the previous versions.In a few minutes the software will be installed on your computer, without any questions or other things that slow down the installation.

Office Enterprise 2010 is the most complete Microsoft toolset provided for people who must collaborate with others and
work with information efficiently, regardless of location or network status. Office Enterprise 2010 builds on the
strengths of Microsoft Office Professional Plus 2010, adding Microsoft Office Groove 2010 and Microsoft Office OneNote
2010, enabling people to collaborate and create, manage, and use information more efficiently.

* Microsoft Office Access 2010
* Microsoft Office Excel 2010
* Microsoft Office Groove 2010
* Microsoft Office InfoPath 2010
* Microsoft Office OneNote 2010
* Microsoft Office Outlook 2010
* Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2010
* Microsoft Office Publisher 2010
* Microsoft Office Word 2010

Download: Microsoft Office Enterprise 2010 Corporate (1 Link)

Or: part01 - part02 - part03 - part04 - part05 - part06 - part07 - part 08

NTFS or FAT32: Which Should I Choose?

A common questions when installing Windows XP on your computer is whether or not you should format your hard drives as NTFS or Fat32.

The specifications for both systems are as follows:


* Use it if your hard drive is 32GB or less.
* Is slightly faster than NTFS, but not by much.
* Can be used by other Operating Systems. If you plan on having multiple operating systems on your machine, you want FAT32.


* Should be used if your hard drive is greater than 32GB
* Has better compression allowing you to store more data.
* Has file security.

In generaly, with drive sizes being by default greater than 32GB, you should use NTFS. NTFS also gives you greater security on your hard drive to eliminate possible unauthorized access of your data.

On the other hand, if you are using Windows 95,98, or ME, NTFS is not an option so you must use FAT32. You will also want to use FAT32 when you have multiple operating systems on one computer.

How to Download 5x Faster using Rapidshare

This tutorial is intended for both and There are multiple ways you can download from rapidshare, but there are 2 that are most efficient (in my opinion).

There are 2 parts of this tutorial.
Part 1 - For the more experienced users of rapidshare. This part shows how to download those long lists of files 5x faster and easier than you use to download them. When downloading single files this way, it will download them up to 5x faster as well.
Part 2 - For the more novice users in learning how to navigate through rapidshare to download.

Part 1
Again, this deals with downloading multiple files without clicking each and every URL or copying each URL into a new browser to start downloading.

For best results, purchase a Rapidshare Premium account.


1. This step is for Premium Rapidshare users. First, we'll need to set up Flashget. Open it up and go to Tools>Default Download Properties. Enter your Premium Login information into the "Login to Server" area. Change the Save to directory to your normal downloads directory. Hit ok.

Posted Image

2. When there is a file that you want but it's split into many different files because it's too large, then this is probably what you are presented with:
complaints made - links removed

3. Select all those and right click and choose copy (or hit ctrl+c). Usually flashget will come up and ask if you want to download. If it does, just click OK. If not, then follow the next step.

4. Open up notepad and paste all the URL's there. Save it. Then in Flashget go to File>Import List. A menu will come up, navigate to the directory you saved the .txt to, make sure the Files of Type is changed to All Files. Choose the file and click Open. A new menu will come up to verify that those are the files you want to download, click OK.

Posted Image

5. Right click any of the files and click "Start All". This is so the files will go in queue since Flashget usually puts them to Paused. I leave my download settings at default of 3 connections at a time, but you can change any options you want (Tools>Option).

You are done! The files should be downloading now.

Part 2
1. Find a file you have to download. Many times you'll see it as such:
links removed due to complaints
So just copy and paste it in a new window.

2. You'll be presented with rapidshares download page, scroll to the bottom and you should see something similar to this (I've cropped the images for better viewing):

Posted Image

3. I'll assume you have a free account, so choose the free option.

Posted Image

4. There will be a countdown until you can download your file (most of the time).

Posted Image

This is what you get when it's done counting down:

Posted Image

5. Once the countdown is done, click Download. Then a popup should come up asking you were you want to save it to. Save it to your download directory (meaning a folder somewhere so you don't lose your download).

Posted Image


How to write a CD/DVD image or ISO

What is a CD/DVD Image

A CD/DVD image is a file that contains all the information necessary to make an exact duplicate, or clone, of a CD or DVD. Images are created by software that writes every bit of information contained on a CD or DVD into a file on your computer. This file can then be made available for download so that other people can make an exact duplicate or your original CD or DVD on their own computer.

Now do not think that you can simply go out and buy a CD and then create a image of it for your friends to download and write to a CD. Most commercial CDs these days have a copy protection on them that makes it difficult or next to impossible to duplicate. There are, though, certain CDs that you are allowed to freely distribute to friends. For example, almost all Linux distributions are available by download as a type cd image known as an ISO. These ISOs tend to be bootable CDs that contain an image of the original master CD for the operating system. Once you download the ISO image you can then burn that image onto a blank CD and boot your computer from it. Whether you download a Linux operating system that you can run directly off the CD or use it to install the operating system onto your computer is up to you.

Different types of CD/DVD images

There are many different types of CD/DVD images that can be found available for download. The type of image is usually dependent on the CD Writing software that was used to create the CD/DVD image. A very common image format that is used on the Internet is anISO image. This image format can generally be read by almost any CD / DVD Writing software on the market. The type of a CD image is usually determined by the extension of the filename. For example if a CD image was called linux01.iso, then the image type for this file is most likely an ISO image.

The table below contains a list of common image formats and the software generally used to create them.

Programs used to create Image
.CDI DiscJuggler
.IMG CloneCD
.ISO Almost all commercial CD Writing software
.NRG Nero Burning Rom

The next two sections will explain how to write a CD/DVD image when using the free ImgBurn and one of the most popular CD Writing softwares, Nero.

Writing a CD or DVD image with ImgBurn

ImgBurn is a piece of software designed to write CD or DVD images. It is free, supports most of the popular image formats, and is extremely easy to use. It is for these reasons, that I feel that for those who do not need a commercial CD writing software, ImgBurn is a perfect piece of software for your image burning needs. You can download ImgBurn from here: ImgBurn Download Link

ImgBurn Installation
  1. Download ImgBurn from the above link and save it to a location on your hard drive you will be able to locate later.
  2. Once the file is finished downloading, double-click on the downloaded file to start the setup.
  3. Press Next at each of the prompts. During installation it will ask if you want the program to check for updates whenever it runs. If this is something you want it to do, press Yes.
  4. When it is done press the Finish button and ImgBurn will now start.
Writing the Image
1. Put a blank CD or DVD into the device you wish to write with.
2. If ImgBurn is not already started, double-click the ImgBurn icon that looks like the following:

3. When the program opens, select the CD/DVD Recording device that you would like to write to from the Destination drop down box.
4. Click on the File menu and then choose the Browse option.
5. Navigate to the image that you would like to write and click on it once to highlight it. Then press the Open button.
6. When you are satisfied with your settings, click on the image that looks like this:
7. If you get an error stating that ImgBurn is unable to Lock the volume for exclusive access, then click on the Tools menu and select the Settings option. Then click on the Write tab and remove the checkmark next to the checkbox labeled Lock Volume - Exclusive Access. Now proceed to step 6 again.
8. When the program is finished writing the image to your DVD or CD, it will display a message box stating it is finished. Simply click on the OK button .
9. Close the program if you are finished with it.
10. Eject your CD your DVD.
You are now done writing the image file with ImgBurn.

Writing a CD or DVD image with Nero 

Nero is considered one of the most popular commercial CD Writing software available. For those who do not have this software and would like to try it for free, they offer a free trial at the following link: Nero Trial Offer

In order to write a CD/DVD image with Nero you should use the following steps:
1. Put a blank CD or DVD into the device you wish to write with.
2. When you install Nero, it will create shortcuts to many different programs. You want to double-click on the icon labeled Nero Burning Rom to start the program.
3. When Nero starts, it may start in the New Compilation screen. If it does, click on the Cancel button.
4. At the top of the Nero window will be a drop down menu containing a list of devices that you can write to. Make sure the CD or DVD Recording device that you wish to write to is selected.
5. Then click on the Recorder menu and choose Burn Image.
6. This will open a windows called Open which will allow you to navigate to the image file you would like to write. Navigate to the image and click once on it to select it. Then press the Open button.
7. A Burn Compilation screen will now open. At this screen put a checkmarks next the checkboxes labeled Write and Finalize CD (or Finalize DVD)
8. When the writing is complete there will be a message box from Nero stating it is finished. Simply click on the OK button.
9. If you are finished, click on the Done button and Nero will eject the newly created CD or DVD.
Now that you are finished, you can close Nero.

How to Assemble a PC

Assembling a Computer

While you can save a lot of money building a PC yourself, it?s important to take care in assembling it. Without following a certain precautions, you can wind up costing yourself in broken parts. In this document, I hope to be able to bring confidence to new system builders, and give some tips that might help those relatively new to PC building. Though it may seem daunting at first, assembling your own computer brings a sense of pride to using it, and knowledge of exactly what's inside. I'm going to assume that you've got your components picked out and purchased, and proceed directly to assembly.

These instructions are primarily for assembling a PC based on an ATX case, motherboard, and power supply. Older AT components assemble in a similar fashion. I will attempt to update this article when I am able to deal with some equipment based on the cutting-edge BTX specification. I strongly recommend that you read the entire article before beginning, and that you have some degree of PC hardware repair or upgrade experience before trying to build your own PC.


The two biggest dangers in assembling a PC are static and debris. To protect from the former, you want to build your computer on a workbench over a hard floor. Walking on carpet can give you a static charge, which can damage components. You should also keep parts in their anti-static bags or containers until you're ready to use them. The other concern, debris, means simply that you want to keep your workspace and parts clean. Small bits of metal or packing material can cause problems, so take care not to introduce them to the assembly environment.

Now that we're done with the safety stuff, let?s get into the fun part. There is one major feature of your case that can affect the assembly process: a slide out motherboard tray. If you have one, make use of it, it makes assembly much easier to be able to do it outside the case. If your tray doesn't slide out, no worries; while the space is a bit cramped, you can still get the job done. In terms of tools for assembly, you should just need an average size Phillips screwdriver.

Step 1: Motherboard Insertion

Everything that you put in your system in some way connects to the motherboard. Thus, we insert it first. Motherboards attach to the case via a set of mounting holes on the board. Some of these holes should line up with brass standoffs on the motherboard tray. Key areas to have support under are the expansion slots and memory slots. If there are standoffs with no corresponding hole, remove them (they screw out) to prevent contact issues with the motherboard. If you're lacking standoffs in key areas, they can be added by drilling and tapping a hole in the tray (though this is difficult, and should usually be unnecessary). An alternative to this is the small plastic feet that ship with some motherboards and cases, which can be inserted into the mounting holes to provide support. At least a few holes need to be screwed in to provide secure mounting and some ground lines for the motherboard.

If your motherboard has an odd port layout, it may require a special I/O shield. This is the bit of metal that the ports poke through to the outside world. The motherboard should come with the shield if necessary (if it didn't, and your ports don't match the case, read on to special circumstances). Replacing the shield is a simple matter of popping the old one out and pressing the new one into place.

The motherboard should be slid into the case port-edge first. If you move it in at an angle, and line up the ports with the shield, you can then easily lower the motherboard down onto the standoffs. You may need to shift it a bit side to side to line up the holes. Once you're in, screw in the motherboard screws (usually short brass or steel screws with hexagonal Phillips heads) hand tight (There isn't a part of this project you should use a driver on; they can cause damage to the delicate threads involved). When the motherboard is in to your satisfaction, we can move on to the next step.

Step 2: Memory & Processor

The innards of computers are designed to optimize space and airflow, not to insure all components are accessible at all times. Because of this, it?s important to follow a certain order in installing components to make life easier (and prevent having to pull out stuff you've already added). The first component that we will add is the memory. All modern memory comes in the general form of a DIMM module. Modules are keyed so that they only fit in the slot one way, and will only fit in compatible slots. You want to fill slots starting with the largest module in the lowest numbered slot (there should be some indication on the motherboard or in the documentation as to which slot is slot 0). To insert a module, first press down the white tabs on the end of the slot, then press the module firmly and evenly into place. Some of the key patterns are nearly symmetrical, so if the module doesn't seem to go in at first, try flipping it around. As the module goes in, the tabs should swing up to clip it into place.

The next component to install is the processor. Because of their expense and fragility, modern CPUs are connected to the system through a ZIF, or Zero Insertion Force, socket. One corner of the CPU should be chamfered, or be indicated with a dot. This will match with a corresponding chamfer on the socket. Once you've found the appropriate orientation, you need to open the socket by pulled the locking lever out and up. The 'out' motion is really just a slight bend to unlatch the lever. The lever should lift to be perpendicular to the motherboard. Now that the socket is open, carefully set the processor on the socket. It should slide into the socket under its own weight. When it is properly seated, push the locking lever back into the locked position.

The heatsink is a critical component to keeping your PC running. The interface between the processor and the CPU is important. Some heatsinks, including most of the stock ones provided with boxed CPUs, come with thermal tape on the bottom. If your heatsink did not come with thermal tape, I would recommend applying a thermal compound to make a good thermal interface. Instructions for applying the compound should come with it, otherwise you can read below to special circumstances. The heatsink can attach to the computer in one of two ways. The first and more common method is by clipping to the processor socket. For some large, heavy heatsinks, you need to bolt them directly to mount points inside the case. Since mounting systems differ, and require that the motherboard be configured and drilled to accommodate them, I will leave installation of these to the instructions included with the part.

Before installing the heatsink, you may need to attach the fan if it is not already mounted. This is usually accomplished by screws on the corners of the fan or by wire clips along two edges. The best airflow direction for the heatsink fan is blowing down into the heatsink. Fan direction should be indicated by arrows on one side on the housing.

A heatsink clip is typically a bent metal strip that passes through the middle of the heatsink. The ends of this strip have holes to latch onto protrusions from the processor socket. The idea is to place the heatsink centered over the processor, and maneuver one end of the mounting bar to one of the protrusions. The best way to get the other end on is to pull out and down, pressing towards the protrusion on the other side of the socket. Typically, the mount points on one or both sides have a taper; it?s a good idea to make the second side one with a taper so that it?s easier to clip into place. Note that it takes a good deal of force to get the bracket to clip into place. You want to be careful to apply even pressure and to not shift the heatsink a lot while clipping the bracket into place.

Once the heatsink is in place, you want to connect the fan to power. The three typical ways this is accomplished is through a motherboard header (a thin 2 or 3 pin connector), a 3-pin bus connector, or a 4-pin drive power connector. Motherboard headers will be indicated on the motherboard. 3-pin connectors use either an adapter to connect to a drive power connector, or connect to a fanbus. 4-pin "molex" drive connectors can connect directly to a hard drive power connector. Since the last two connection options involve stringing a cable across the case, it may be easier to leave connecting it to later.

Step 3: Cables

The main cables that you want to get connected before adding expansion cards are the drive data cables and the motherboard power connector(s). The three drive cables that you may need to connect are the floppy cable, IDE cables, and SATA cables, depending on your drive configuration. The floppy cable is the narrower of the two ribbon cables that should have shipped with your motherboard, and has a twist in some leads before the last set of connectors. The floppy connector is usually labeled on the motherboard as such. You only need to have this cable in place if you're using a floppy drive (I recommend having one, as they're sometimes helpful, and cheap).

Most motherboards have two IDE channels, which support two devices each. Deciding on the layout of devices on these channels I will discuss later, for now you can assume that they will both be needed. Both the IDE and floppy ribbon cables are keyed to only connect one way; if the keying is not present, put the colored edge of the cable towards the pin indicated as pin 1 on the motherboard header. For SATA drives, you want one cable per drive connected to the motherboard SATA controller. If you're using a PCI card as an IDE or SATA controller, you don't need to connect those cables at this point.

Motherboard power is supplied through a large rectangular connector. It is keyed to connect to the motherboard only one way, and clips into place. On some Pentium 4 motherboards, an addition Pentium 4 power connector is required. This is a square 2x2 connector that connects to a corresponding, keyed, connector on the motherboard. If your motherboard requires this connector but your power supply does not provide it, there are adapters available to convert a hard drive power lead for this purpose.

Front panel connectors are what make your power and reset buttons work and the power and hdd lights glow. There should be a block of headers on the motherboard where all of these connect. This is usually one of the more poorly documented parts of the motherboard layout; usually you can find an indication of where in the header block the connectors go, though the direction is sometimes ambiguous. Since power and reset are momentary switches, polarity isn't tremendously important, but the power and hdd LEDs need to be connected the right way. Often, the only way to check is to move things around every time the computer is off until its right.

Step 4: Expansion Cards
Your graphics card usually requires the first slot, the AGP port. There may be a locking clip on the back edge of the port that you need to open before inserting the card. When inserting the card, press straight down with even pressure across the length of the card. It should slide all the way into the slot. Once the card is in, attach the mounting bracket to the case with one screw (if you have a tool-free case, there will be a slip to hold all of the expansion cards down. If this is the case, leave it open until we're done with all of the cards). Some high-performance video cards require that they be connected to a hard drive power connector. You should make that connection now.

The order in which PCI cards are added doesn't particularly matter, unless a specific part demands a specific slot. If you have room, it?s a good idea to leave the slot adjacent to the AGP port open for airflow reasons (some massive nVidia and 3dlabs cards actually fill both slots). PCI cards are inserted in the same way, straight down with even pressure. Use either mounting screws or the bracket on the case (if present) to secure the cards in place. Note that in front of all slots there will be a blank bracket or a pop out panel; keep the blank brackets for future use and carefully plan which pop out panels to remove.

Step 5: Drives

Drive mounting patterns vary by personal preference, but I like to space out my optical drives if possible starting from the top of the case down, and do the same with hard drives starting at the bottom of the internal bays. Drives mount to the cages either by screws or by mounting rails. Rails are easiest; you attack the rails to the drive outside the case and just push it into position from the front (for hard drives, this may require removing the faceplate of the case). If the drives need to screw in, you slide the drive in from the most convenient direction, lining it up as well as possible. You then insert 4 screws loosely (less screws are possible, but 4 is more secure. Especially difficult are screws on the back side of the case, which often require guiding through small access holes. After you've got all four screws in place, align the drive just right (especially important for the appearance of optical and floppy drives) and hand tighten.

One special case that can occur with hard drives is a lack of the 3.5" bays that they use. For this purpose, most drive manufacturers provide adapter rails to mount the drives in 5.25" bays (near the optical drives). I'd recommend doing this only if you need to, for reasons of wasted external bays, thermal problems, and cable run issues. You attach the adapters to the drives before inserting them into the case. Note that drive rails also work in this situation.

Now is when I will talk about the art of assigning drives to IDE channels. With the advent of SATA, this is becoming less of an issue, but most system builders will still benefit. Transfers between drives on the same IDE channel are slower than transfers between drives on separate channels. For this reason, optical drives should be split up to speed CD copying, and hard drives should be split up to speed things like video editing, which work better reading from one drive and writing to another. For this reason, I recommend the following layout:

Primary Channel:

-Master: Primary Hard Drive (OS, apps)
-Slave: Primary CD (fastest burner)

Secondary Channel:

-Master: Secondary Hard Drive (Data)
-Secondary CD (DVD, etc)

IDE connectors should be keyed to connect to the drive only one way; if not, the colored edge goes towards the power connector on the drive. The master connector on the IDE cable is the one at the end, the slave is the one in the middle. Drive power is supplied through 4-pin molex connectors (on IDE drives) or SATA power connectors (on SATA drives). Some SATA drives accept 4-pin molex connectors, though this disallows some of the power features of SATA, such as hot swapping. If your power supply doesn't have SATA connectors and your drive requires them, there are adaptors available (note that these also disallow special SATA power features). The floppy power connector is a smaller 4-pin connector, the widest edge of this faces down.

Step 6: Everything Else

Now is when we want to connect any case fans to power, and check that all other connectors are in place. It?s also a good time to route cables away from fans, for optimal airflow. This can be accomplished by running them in bundles with zip ties, though metal/paper twist-ties work as well. Before first power on, we want to put the side panel in place, and attach the keyboard, mouse, video, and power cables to the back of the computer. Leave the rest of the peripheral devices disconnected until the assembly has been confirmed to work. Before powering on for the first time, it?s a good idea to check anything that you're unsure of. At this point, a press of the power button should bring your new PC to life.

Step 7: It Didn't Start

It isn't uncommon for even an experienced system builder to forget an important connection that prevents the system from powering on. If your system doesn't start, unplug the power and check the following:

- Is the power switch connected to the right header? If you're sure it is, switch the polarity.
- Is motherboard power securely in place? The clip needs to be engaged.
- Are the memory and expansion cards all seated properly?
- If problems persist, additional help can be found here at Extreme Tech Support

With PCs, there are varying levels of 'turning on'. The most basic is that the fans and lights kick in when you press the power button. After this, there is a series of beeps that tell you how the most basic startup processes went. If things went mostly well, you'll get some startup messages on your monitor. If the machine fails to boot, there are various sites that list the beep codes from the major BIOS manufacturers (the BIOS is the part of the system that controls the beginning of the boot cycle and checks all components at power on. It can report problems with memory, expansion cards, and other things). Looking at these listings can at least give you an idea of where the problem is. If you can't resolve it yourself, there is always the forum to assist you. Be forewarned that there is a failure rate in computer parts, but most are warranted at least long enough for you to get them replaced if you are just adding them to your PC.

Once your new PC starts, you might need to make a few BIOS tweaks to make sure the right boot drive order is set, etc. Beyond that, its all OS and software install, which I'm sure will be covered at another time.

Special Circumstances

Sometimes, the parts of a PC just don't fit together quite right. You might need to insert some more motherboard standoffs, make your own I/O shield, or use thermal compound to ensure a good thermal connection between your CPU and heatsink. While this guide is in no way comprehensive, it should point you in the right direction.

Adding mount points for anything to a PC case is about the only time you're going to apply power tools outside actual case modding. Normally, adding new motherboard standoffs will involve moving an unused one to a new location, rather than adding to the existing standoff count (though you can purchase standoffs from some parts stores). You want to select the position of your new standoff by marking through one of the mount holes of your motherboard when it is aligned with the existing mount points. Once you've got the spot, clear all electronics from the area, and remove the power supply from the case (a metal shard in the power supply can cause hardware damage and even a fire). You want to drill a hole slightly smaller than the minor diameter of the threads on the standoff. You want to use a metal bit here if you have them, though wood bits at low speed will work as well. If you have an appropriate tap, tap the hole. Otherwise, this will just be a very tight fit (luckily, you almost never have to remove standoffs again). After drilling and tapping, you want to clear all chips from the area, and clean up the hole with a file. And debris left in the case from this process can be fatal to the system. You screw the standoff in with a hex driver, or some have a convenient slot for a screwdriver. You want these to be as tight as you can get them by hand; otherwise motherboard removal can be a pain.

If your motherboard doesn't match your current I/O shield, and didn't include a replacement, there are a few things that you can do. First, if the difference is minor, you can cut the existing shield with a pair of snips. If the port layouts are wildly different (this doesn't happen often) you might need to resort to getting a piece of high-gauge sheet metal and drilling/cutting it to fit. It is preferable to cut up the old shield, though. The key points are for every port to be touched by the shield, and for unused holes to be covered to prevent airflow and dust issues. The shield touching the ports allows for certain grounding properties. Duct tape works fine to cover unused holes. Remember than just an approximate fit is needed; this is the back of the PC, so beauty isn't a great issue.

Applying thermal compound is really a simple process. You want to put a BB size amount on the center of the processor (on the square part that sticks up, the 'core') and spread it evenly with some device (the end of a zip tie works well). It is important to not scratch the processor and to not get compound on areas other than the core. Once the compound is in place, you can attach the heatsink as normal. Generally good compounds to buy are from the Artic Silver line (a new version comes out every so often; I believe it?s around Arctic Silver 5 at the time of this writing). If you're not overclocking your machine, any compound will work really. The key is to get a thermal compound, not a thermal epoxy, as an epoxy will permanently bond your heatsink to your processor.

Delete Flash Cookies With CCleaner

So lets say for the sake of privacy you have deleted your browsing history, cache and cookies so now you cannot have your internet activity traced right?

Well what you havnt done is cleaned out your flash cookies, you may think you have but sadly many of the junk cleaner apps dont clean them neither does your browser.
Flash apps store their flash cookies seperate from the normal cookies. Some sites use flash cookies as a backup for normal cookies!

So what happens is the site reads your flash cookie, see's that the normal cookie has been deleted so reinstates the normal cookie from the data stored in the flash cookie.
Scary stuff eh?

One way to delete these flash cookies is to navigate to C:\Users\Your Username\AppData\Roaming\Macromedia\Flash Player\#SharedObjects\Random Name.
Note the random name folder is just a miss-match of letters. If you open the folder you will see if you have, or dare I say, how many flash cookies you have.

An easier way, if you use CCleaner to clean your files is to add the folder to its 'Include' list.
To do this open CCleaner and click on 'Options' then on 'Include'.

Click on 'Add' then in the window that opens make sure that Drive or Folder is checked and click on 'Browse'.

Navigate your way through to C:\Users\Your Username\AppData\Roaming\Macromedia\Flash Player\#SharedObjects\Random Name, highlight the folder and click 'OK'.
Now you are back at the previous window, check that 'All Files' is selected and under 'Options' the Include files only is selected.
Again click 'OK' then 'Yes' at the warning.
Now every time you use CCleaner to cleanup the junk files, the flash cookies will be deleted as well.

Install Windows 7 or Vista Via USB

USB Flash Drive (Minimum 4GB)

Follow the below steps to create bootable Windows 7 or Vista USB drive using which you can install Windows 7 or Vista easily.
1. Plug-in your USB flash drive to USB port and move all the contents from USB drive to a safe location on your system.
2. Open Command Prompt with admin rights. Use any of the below methods to open Command Prompt with admin rights.
3. Type in the following commands in the command prompt:

Type DISKPART and hit enter to see the below message.

Next type LIST DISK command and note down the Disk number of your USB flash drive.

4. So below are the commands you need to type and execute one by one:

(The Format Process Should Only Take Few Minutes)

Do not close the command prompt as you will need to execute one more command at the next step so Just minimize it for now.

5. Now insert your Windows7 or Vista DVD into the your drive and check the drive letter of the DVD drive. Lets assume that your DVD drive letter is “E” and your USB drive letter is “I”
6. Maximize the minimized Command Prompt and type in the following command now:

E: CD BOOT and hit enter. Where “E” is your DVD drive letter.
CD BOOT and hit enter to see the below message.

7. Type another command given below to update the USB drive with BOOTMGR compatible code.


Where “I” is your USB drive letter.

8. Copy your Windows 7/Vista DVD contents to the USB flash drive.

9. The only thing you need to change now is the boot priority in the BIOS to USB from the HDD or CD ROM drive.

Thats it now complete, now you can install your windows 7 or Vista from your USB!

Facebook: The Missing Manual

Facebook's spreading about as far and fast as the Web itself: 500 million members and counting. But there's a world of fun packed into the site that most folks miss. With this bestselling guide, learn how to unlock Facebook's talents as personal website creator, souped-up address book, and bustling community forum. It's an eye-opening, timesaving tour, guaranteed to help you get the most out of your Facebook experience.

Coverage includes:
* Get started, get connected. Signing up is easy, but the real payoff comes when you tap into networks of coworkers, classmates, and friends. Pick and choose who gets to see what, and learn how to steer clear of people you want to avoid.

* Add applications. Transform your Facebook account into an addictive, one-stop resource with thousands of mini-programs, ranging from silly to serious.

* Go professional. Facebook isn’t just for college kids. Thousands of companies and businesspeople use the site for everything from project collaboration and advertising to filling (and finding) jobs. You’ll learn all the tricks.

* Protect your privacy. You may feel too exposed with so much personal info on display. This book features an easy-to-follow, multi-pronged approach to staying safe on Facebook.

Download: Facebook: The Missing Manual

How Computer Viruses Work

Computer viruses tend to grab our attention. On the one hand, viruses show us how vulnerable we are. A properly engineered virus can have an amazing effect on the worldwide Internet. On the other hand, they show how sophisticated and interconnected human beings have become.

For example, experts estimate that the Mydoom worm infected approximately a quarter-million computers in a single day in January 2004. (Times Online). Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating effect. That's pretty impressive when you consider that the Melissa and ILOVEYOU viruses are incredibly simple.

In this article, we will discuss viruses -- both "traditional" viruses and the newer e-mail viruses -- so that you can learn how they work and also understand how to protect yourself. Viruses in general are on the wane, but occasionally a person finds a new way to create one, and that's when they make the news.

Types of Infection
When you listen to the news, you hear about many different forms of electronic infection. The most common are:

* Viruses - A virus is a small piece of software that piggybacks on real programs. For example, a virus might attach itself to a program such as a spreadsheet program. Each time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus runs, too, and it has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other programs) or wreak havoc.

* E-mail viruses - An e-mail virus moves around in e-mail messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's e-mail address book.

* Worms - A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole, and then starts replicating from there, as well.

* Trojan horses - A Trojan horse is simply a computer program. The program claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically.

What's a "Virus"?
Computer viruses are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological viruses. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological virus passes from person to person.

There are similarities at a deeper level, as well. A biological virus is not a living thing. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. Unlike a cell, a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -- it is not alive. Instead, a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. The viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. In some cases, the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts, releasing the virus. In other cases, the new virus particles bud off the cell one at a time, and the cell remains alive.

A computer virus shares some of these traits. A computer virus must piggyback on top of some other program or document in order to get executed. Once it is running, it is then able to infect other programs or documents. Obviously, the analogy between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit, but there are enough similarities that the name sticks.

What's a "Worm"?
A worm is a computer program that has the ability to copy itself from machine to machine. Worms normally move around and infect other machines through computer networks. Using a network, a worm can expand from a single copy incredibly quickly. For example, the Code Red worm replicated itself over 250,000 times in approximately nine hours on July 19, 2001.

A worm usually exploits some sort of security hole in a piece of software or the operating system. For example, the Slammer worm (which caused mayhem in January 2003) exploited a hole in Microsoft's SQL server. This article offers a fascinating look inside Slammer's tiny (376 byte) program.

Code Red
Worms use up computer time and network bandwidth when they are replicating, and they often have some sort of evil intent. A worm called Code Red made huge headlines in 2001. Experts predicted that this worm could clog the Internet so effectively that things would completely grind to a halt.

The Code Red worm slowed down Internet traffic when it began to replicate itself, but not nearly as badly as predicted. Each copy of the worm scanned the Internet for Windows NT or Windows 2000 servers that do not have the Microsoft security patch installed. Each time it found an unsecured server, the worm copied itself to that server. The new copy then scanned for other servers to infect. Depending on the number of unsecured servers, a worm could conceivably create hundreds of thousands of copies.

The Code Red worm was designed to do three things:

* Replicate itself for the first 20 days of each month
* Replace Web pages on infected servers with a page that declares "Hacked by Chinese"
* Launch a concerted attack on the White House Web server in an attempt to overwhelm it

The most common version of Code Red is a variation, typically referred to as a mutated strain, of the original Ida Code Red that replicated itself on July 19, 2001. According to the National Infrastructure Protection Center:

The Ida Code Red Worm, which was first reported by eEye Digital Security, is taking advantage of known vulnerabilities in the Microsoft IIS Internet Server Application Program Interface (ISAPI) service. Un-patched systems are susceptible to a "buffer overflow" in the Idq.dll, which permits the attacker to run embedded code on the affected system. This memory resident worm, once active on a system, first attempts to spread itself by creating a sequence of random IP addresses to infect unprotected web servers. Each worm thread will then inspect the infected computer's time clock. The NIPC has determined that the trigger time for the DOS execution of the Ida Code Red Worm is at 0:00 hours, GMT on July 20, 2001. This is 8:00 PM, EST.

Upon successful infection, the worm would wait for the appointed hour and connect to the domain. This attack would consist of the infected systems simultaneously sending 100 connections to port 80 of (

The U.S. government changed the IP address of to circumvent that particular threat from the worm and issued a general warning about the worm, advising users of Windows NT or Windows 2000 Web servers to make sure they have installed the security patch.

Early Cases: Executable Viruses
Early viruses were pieces of code attached to a common program like a popular game or a popular word processor. A person might download an infected game from a bulletin board and run it. A virus like this is a small piece of code embedded in a larger, legitimate program. Any virus is designed to run first when the legitimate program gets executed. The virus loads itself into memory and looks around to see if it can find any other programs on the disk. If it can find one, it modifies it to add the virus's code to the unsuspecting program. Then the virus launches the "real program." The user really has no way to know that the virus ever ran. Unfortunately, the virus has now reproduced itself, so two programs are infected. The next time either of those programs gets executed, they infect other programs, and the cycle continues.

If one of the infected programs is given to another person on a floppy disk, or if it is uploaded to a bulletin board, then other programs get infected. This is how the virus spreads.

The spreading part is the infection phase of the virus. Viruses wouldn't be so violently despised if all they did was replicate themselves. Unfortunately, most viruses also have some sort of destructive attack phase where they do some damage. Some sort of trigger will activate the attack phase, and the virus will then "do something" -- anything from printing a silly message on the screen to erasing all of your data. The trigger might be a specific date, or the number of times the virus has been replicated, or something similar.

Boot Sector Viruses
As virus creators got more sophisticated, they learned new tricks. One important trick was the ability to load viruses into memory so they could keep running in the background as long as the computer remained on. This gave viruses a much more effective way to replicate themselves. Another trick was the ability to infect the boot sector on floppy disks and hard disks. The boot sector is a small program that is the first part of the operating system that the computer loads. The boot sector contains a tiny program that tells the computer how to load the rest of the operating system. By putting its code in the boot sector, a virus can guarantee it gets executed. It can load itself into memory immediately, and it is able to run whenever the computer is on. Boot sector viruses can infect the boot sector of any floppy disk inserted in the machine, and on college campuses where lots of people share machines they spread like wildfire.

In general, both executable and boot sector viruses are not very threatening any more. The first reason for the decline has been the huge size of today's programs. Nearly every program you buy today comes on a compact disc. Compact discs cannot be modified, and that makes viral infection of a CD impossible. The programs are so big that the only easy way to move them around is to buy the CD. People certainly can't carry applications around on a floppy disk like they did in the 1980s, when floppies full of programs were traded like baseball cards. Boot sector viruses have also declined because operating systems now protect the boot sector.

Both boot sector viruses and executable viruses are still possible, but they are a lot harder now and they don't spread nearly as quickly as they once could. Call it "shrinking habitat," if you want to use a biological analogy. The environment of floppy disks, small programs and weak operating systems made these viruses possible in the 1980s, but that environmental niche has been largely eliminated by huge executables, unchangeable CDs and better operating system safeguards.

E-mail Viruses
The latest thing in the world of computer viruses is the e-mail virus, and the Melissa virus in March 1999 was spectacular. Melissa spread in Microsoft Word documents sent via e-mail, and it worked like this:

Someone created the virus as a Word document uploaded to an Internet newsgroup. Anyone who downloaded the document and opened it would trigger the virus. The virus would then send the document (and therefore itself) in an e-mail message to the first 50 people in the person's address book. The e-mail message contained a friendly note that included the person's name, so the recipient would open the document thinking it was harmless. The virus would then create 50 new messages from the recipient's machine. As a result, the Melissa virus was the fastest-spreading virus ever seen! As mentioned earlier, it forced a number of large companies to shut down their e-mail systems.

The ILOVEYOU virus, which appeared on May 4, 2000, was even simpler. It contained a piece of code as an attachment. People who double clicked on the attachment allowed the code to execute. The code sent copies of itself to everyone in the victim's address book and then started corrupting files on the victim's machine. This is as simple as a virus can get. It is really more of a Trojan horse distributed by e-mail than it is a virus.

The Melissa virus took advantage of the programming language built into Microsoft Word called VBA, or Visual Basic for Applications. It is a complete programming language and it can be programmed to do things like modify files and send e-mail messages. It also has a useful but dangerous auto-execute feature. A programmer can insert a program into a document that runs instantly whenever the document is opened. This is how the Melissa virus was programmed. Anyone who opened a document infected with Melissa would immediately activate the virus. It would send the 50 e-mails, and then infect a central file called NORMAL.DOT so that any file saved later would also contain the virus! It created a huge mess.

Microsoft applications have a feature called Macro Virus Protection built into them to prevent this sort of thing. With Macro Virus Protection turned on (the default option is ON), the auto-execute feature is disabled. So when a document tries to auto-execute viral code, a dialog pops up warning the user. Unfortunately, many people don't know what macros or macro viruses are, and when they see the dialog they ignore it, so the virus runs anyway. Many other people turn off the protection mechanism. So the Melissa virus spread despite the safeguards in place to prevent it.

In the case of the ILOVEYOU virus, the whole thing was human-powered. If a person double-clicked on the program that came as an attachment, then the program ran and did its thing. What fueled this virus was the human willingness to double-click on the executable.

An Ounce of Prevention
You can protect yourself against viruses with a few simple steps:

* If you are truly worried about traditional (as opposed to e-mail) viruses, you should be running a more secure operating system like UNIX. You never hear about viruses on these operating systems because the security features keep viruses (and unwanted human visitors) away from your hard disk.

* If you are using an unsecured operating system, then buying virus protection software is a nice safeguard.

* If you simply avoid programs from unknown sources (like the Internet), and instead stick with commercial software purchased on CDs, you eliminate almost all of the risk from traditional viruses. In addition, you should disable floppy disk booting -- most computers now allow you to do this, and that will eliminate the risk of a boot sector virus coming in from a floppy disk accidentally left in the drive.

* You should make sure that Macro Virus Protection is enabled in all Microsoft applications, and you should NEVER run macros in a document unless you know what they do. There is seldom a good reason to add macros to a document, so avoiding all macros is a great policy.

Open the Options dialog from the Tools menu in Microsoft Word and make sure that Macro Virus Protection is enabled, as shown.

* You should never double-click on an attachment that contains an executable that arrives as an e-mail attachment. Attachments that come in as Word files (.DOC), spreadsheets (.XLS), images (.GIF and .JPG), etc., are data files and they can do no damage (noting the macro virus problem in Word and Excel documents mentioned above). A file with an extension like EXE, COM or VBS is an executable, and an executable can do any sort of damage it wants. Once you run it, you have given it permission to do anything on your machine. The only defense is to never run executables that arrive via e-mail.

By following those simple steps, you can remain virus free.

People create viruses. A person has to write the code, test it to make sure it spreads properly and then release the virus. A person also designs the virus's attack phase, whether it's a silly message or destruction of a hard disk. So why do people do it?

There are at least three reasons. The first is the same psychology that drives vandals and arsonists. Why would someone want to bust the window on someone else's car, or spray-paint signs on buildings or burn down a beautiful forest? For some people that seems to be a thrill. If that sort of person happens to know computer programming, then he or she may funnel energy into the creation of destructive viruses.

The second reason has to do with the thrill of watching things blow up. Many people have a fascination with things like explosions and car wrecks. When you were growing up, there was probably a kid in your neighborhood who learned how to make gunpowder and then built bigger and bigger bombs until he either got bored or did some serious damage to himself. Creating a virus that spreads quickly is a little like that -- it creates a bomb inside a computer, and the more computers that get infected the more "fun" the explosion.

The third reason probably involves bragging rights, or the thrill of doing it. Sort of like Mount Everest. The mountain is there, so someone is compelled to climb it. If you are a certain type of programmer and you see a security hole that could be exploited, you might simply be compelled to exploit the hole yourself before someone else beats you to it. "Sure, I could TELL someone about the hole. But wouldn't it be better to SHOW them the hole???" That sort of logic leads to many viruses.

Of course, most virus creators seem to miss the point that they cause real damage to real people with their creations. Destroying everything on a person's hard disk is real damage. Forcing the people inside a large company to waste thousands of hours cleaning up after a virus is real damage. Even a silly message is real damage because a person then has to waste time getting rid of it. For this reason, the legal system is getting much harsher in punishing the people who create viruses.

Traditional computer viruses were first widely seen in the late 1980s, and they came about because of several factors. The first factor was the spread of personal computers (PCs). Prior to the 1980s, home computers were nearly non-existent or they were toys. Real computers were rare, and they were locked away for use by "experts." During the 1980s, real computers started to spread to businesses and homes because of the popularity of the IBM PC (released in 1982) and the Apple Macintosh (released in 1984). By the late 1980s, PCs were widespread in businesses, homes and college campuses.

The second factor was the use of computer bulletin boards. People could dial up a bulletin board with a modem and download programs of all types. Games were extremely popular, and so were simple word processors, spreadsheets, etc. Bulletin boards led to the precursor of the virus known as the Trojan horse. A Trojan horse is a program that sounds really cool when you read about it. So you download it. When you run the program, however, it does something uncool like erasing your disk. So you think you are getting a neat game but it wipes out your system. Trojan horses only hit a small number of people because they are discovered quickly. Either the bulletin board owner would erase the file from the system or people would send out messages to warn one another.

The third factor that led to the creation of viruses was the floppy disk. In the 1980s, programs were small, and you could fit the operating system, a word processor (plus several other programs) and some documents onto a floppy disk or two. Many computers did not have hard disks, so you would turn on your machine and it would load the operating system and everything else off of the floppy disk.

Viruses took advantage of these three facts to create the first self-replicating programs.

Free Drive Cloners / Imagers

EaseUs Disk Copy (Copies disks or partitions)

(Disk Copy) creates an exact Mirror Image copy of your disk, including the operating system, applications, personal preferences, custom settings, and all of your vital data.
Disk Copy can be used for copy, cloning, or upgrading your original hard drive to a new drive. It supports all versions of Windows.


(XXClone) makes a self-bootable clone of Windows system disk.
Supports all 32-bit Windows (95, 98, ME, NT4, 2000, XP). Supports common internal disk drives (IDE, SATA, SCSI) and external USB/FIREWIRE drives (also good for a laptop).
Competes with Norton Ghost, DriveImage, MaxBlast, yet is much faster than any of them in typical daily backup.


(SelfImage) is capable of making an image file of a hard disk or hard disk partition, and can restore an image back to any drive or partition that doesn't have open files. Useful for making backups. Unlike dd for Windows (or cygwin), SelfImage is capable of creating an image of a partition that is currently in use. It can even create images of partitions that Windows doesn't recognize (partitions that Windows doesn't have mounted on a drive letter). This is perfect for the dual-boot system, you can create an image backup of a Linux partition directly from Windows. Can create an image of an entire hard disk, including the master boot record, partition table, and all partitions (Windows 2000/XP)

Tetroniks VT LLC CopyrSoft (Copies disk with bad sectors for recovery)


(DrvClonerXP) copies a whole drive partition byte-for-byte, sector-by-sector, directly to another drive partition, producing an exact reproduction (clone) of the original partition. Unlike a disk imaging tool, it does not save the image to disk (for backup or other purpose) but applies it directly to the selected partition. Use it, if you want to create a clone of your drive for whatever reason, (new hard drive etc.) Compatible with Windows 2000/XP.


(HDClone) It copies smaller drives onto larger ones for migrating or backing up complete installations as well as for data rescue. The download package contains a program to easily create a bootable floppy disk or CD/DVD under Windows with only few clicks. A floppy image, or CD/DVD ISO image, can be created to boot from.

PCI CloneMaxx

Partition Saving

(Partition Saving) makes an image file of a hard disk or hard disk partition, and can restore an image back to any drive or partition. I'ts useful for making backups. All versions of Windows including Vista.

CloneZilla GParted LiveCD (Complete partitioning and drive imaging/restoration tools)

Firefox 4 Orange Button Customizations

Firefox RC2 has been released now and the final version is just about upon us.
The new Firefox button is a thing that you surely must either love or hate! Me, I hated it right from the offset.

If you are in the 'Love it' catagory then read no more and go on to the next post as I am about to explain FIVE different addons to customize the button and make it more tolerable.

Number 1 is Movable Firefox Button - this addon allows you to move the button anywhere (within reason) where you want.

After install, Firefox Button will be placed in Tab Bar in default. You may move it with View /Toolbars/ Customize. The Firefox button will be available in Full Screen Mode if you place it in Navigation Toolbar or Tab Bar.
You can get the addon here: https://addons.mozil.....

Number 2 is App Button Color. You can change the button colour to any colour you want! Just right click on the button and choose the colour of your choice.

The change is instant with no restart.
The addon is available here: https://addons.mozil.....

Number 3 is App Button Clear. This makes the button transparent (Got to be better than that orange).

You can get the addon here: https://addons.mozil.....

Number 4 button customization is App Button Remove. It removes the button from the titlebar but dont fret! Just press 'Alt' to get access to the menubar.

You can download it here: https://addons.mozil.....

Number 5 button customization is App Button Close. What this addon does is close Firefox if you double click on the button.
It is available here: https://addons.mozil.....
Obviously there is no screenshot as it does what it says - Closes Firefox!

PS, I didnt like the look of FF4 neither and the themes are a little hard to find but this is my look or at least the one that appeals to me at the moment especially the ability to adjust the tab width.

Tips Merawat Flashdisk

Flashdisk adalah merupakan suatu alat penyimpanan data yang ketahanannya tidak terlalu lama, kenapa demikian? selama ini kita selalu mengandalkan flashdisk untuk penyimpanan data-data yang di anggap penting. Padahal flashdisk merupakan alat penyimpanan data yang sangat mudah terserang virus, disamping itu juga flashdisk sangat mudah rusak.

Kebanyakan perusahaan komputer yang menjual flashdisk hanya memberikan garansi kepada para pembelinya maksimal 1 (satu) tahun, hal ini membuktikan bahwa daya tahan produk yang satu ini kurang lebih 1 (satu) tahun. Tetapi bagi anda yang selalu menggunakan flashdisk sebagai alat untuk penyimpanan data tidak perlu khawatir, berikut ini beberapa tips merawat flashdisk agar bisa lama bertahan :

1. Jauhkan Dari Medan Magnet Kuat

Barang-barang elektronik seperti tv dan handphone sangat tidak baik untuk flashdisk. Untuk itu jangan pernah menyimpannya di dekat barang-barang sejenis yang memiliki kekuatan magnet besar. karena magnet mempengaruhi chip flashdrive sebagai tempat penyimpanan file.

2. Jangan Terkena Air

Meski ada beberapa merk yang mengklaim waterproof, sampai tahan guncangan dan ada yg berbahan kevlar. Menjauhkan flashdisk dari sentuhan air tetap saja menjadi langkah yang paling aman

3. Virus Scan

Saat Pengambilan data atau pemindahan dari dari pc ke flash disk, sangat mungkin tidak hanya data yang ikut berpindah tapi juga virus-virus yang terdapat dalam komputer. Apalagi kalau kita mengambil dan menyimpan data dari internet.Untuk itu , jangan lupa untuk melakukan scan virus secara berkala dengan software anti virus yang tersedia.

4. Proses Eject atau Stop

Selalu lakukan proses eject atau stop sebelum mencabut flashdisk dari port usb. Selain bisa menjadikan flashdisk rusak, tidak melakukan proses eject atau stop juga dapat mempengaruhi file-file data yang kamu simpan didalamnya.

5. Jauhkan Dari Tempat Panas

Semua barang elektronik tak terkecuali flashdisk sangat rentan dengan panas. Jadi usahakan tidak untuk menyimpannya ditempat yang tidak panas atau terkena sinar matahari secara langsung

6. Hindari Benturan Keras

Untuk memperpanjang umur flashdisk, hindarkan flashdisk dari benturan keras. Karena ini dapat menyebabkan rusaknya komponen-komponen pada flashdisk.

7. Tutuplah selalu

Udara dan lingkungan kita penuh dengan debu dan kotoran. Jika socket flashdisk kita kotor maka dapat mengakibatkan proses baca tulis sering gagal. Makanya selalu tutup agar tidak kotor.

8. Minimalisir proses hapus-tulis

Sama seperti kita, flashdisk juga memiliki usia, artinya suatu saat flashdisk kita bisa mati dan tidak bisa digunakan lagi. Usia flashdisk berbeda-beda, tergantung kualitas dan merk dari flashdisk itu sendiri. Biasanya usia flashdisk antara 10.000-100.000 kali proses hapus tulis. Jadi usahakan untuk meminimalisir proses tersebut dan juga mengedit langsung dari flashdisk.

Cara Mendapatkan Email @Facebook

Beberapa bulan lalu, ramai dibicarakan di forum-forum bahwa Facebook telah mengeluarkan email, seperti halnya Yahoo atau Google. Akan tetapi, untuk mendapatkan alamat email di facebook ini berbeda seperti halnya kita membuat email di Yahoo atau Google. Karena kita harus mengirimkan permintaan dahulu ke pihak Facebook. Dan setelah itu, kita harus menunggu konfirmasinya. Apakah diijinkan atau tidak.

Berikut ini cara kita mendapatkan alamat Email di Facebook [] :

Yang pertama pastikan anda sudah login ke akun facebook anda, lalu ikuti langkah berikut ini:
  1. Klik maka anda akan melihat halaman “Pesan Baru”.
  2. Permintaan Alamat
  3. Kemudian pilih tombol “Permintaan Undangan”
  4. Bila sudah, selanjutnya anda hanya tinggal menunggu saja undangan untuk aktifasi alamat email [] milik anda. Proses ini mungkin akan memakan waktu hingga 30 (bisa kurang/lebih).
Bila email anda sudah aktif maka anda akan melihat sub-menu “LAIN” di menu “Pesan” (lihat gambar). Setelah itu anda dapat kirim/terima pesan sesama pengguna email dari layanan email manapun.
Alamat Facebook Email Aktif

Selamat mencoba.

Download Photo Watermark Pro v7.0.5.2

Power, speed, and flexibility! Are these what you want for your watermarking program? This new generation of PhotoWatermark Professional is redesigned from scratch and more specialized in professional watermarking. A feature centered interface setup with clearly readable buttons lets you find the proper commands easily. It supports a mixture of text and image watermarks of any complexity.

A variety of styles including outline, gradient or texture fill, inner shadow, soft shadow, glow, drop shadow, 3D shadow, emboss and engrave render you watermarks that speak of professionalism. Five mechanisms (auto position, relative size, relative margin, image orientation selection and aspect ratio cropping) assure consistent look of your watermarks either on prints or screen regardless of the size and orientation of your images. Flexible Transparency setting allows you to choose how your pictures will be presented to your potential customers.

Watermarks can include little macros to extract various EXIF including GPS tags and file information from individual photo. JPEG, TIFF, PNG and bitmap graphic formats are supported. A built-in watermark file manager helps you manage multiple watermarks for different purposes and switch with a single click. PhotoWatermark Professional supports a combination of batch watermarking, cropping, converting, resizing, renaming and framing. Integrated how-to tips encourages you to start watermarking in no time!

Download : Photo Watermark Pro v7.0.5.2

Download Kaspersky Internet Security 2011 & Keys Update [03.03.2011]

Kaspersky Internet Security 2011 has everything that you need to stay safe and secure while you're surfing the web. It provides constant protection for you and your family – whether you work, bank, shop or play online.

How to activate Kaspersky license using a key file :

1. Open Kaspersky License Manager (from lower right corner).
2. Click ‘Activate the application with a new license’ button. (Delete any trial key first, by clicking the red X next to the key).
3. Disable your internet connection (either disable Network adapter from control panel or turn off your modem/router).
4. Select ‘Activate commercial version’ and enter the activation license code as 11111-11111-11111-1111X
or select ‘Activate trial license’.
5. Click Next, an error dialog box will open as shown below:
6. Click Ok and you will now get the option to activate kaspersky using a key file.
7. Browse to the key location and activate kaspersky.

Download : Kaspersky Internet Security 2011 & Keys Update